Color temperature refers to whether a color is perceived as warm or cool. Reds and yellows are described as warm and blues and greens are cool. Violets are warm and purples are cool, yellowy greens are warm but most greens are cool.
Monochromatic color schemes use one color and the variations and contrast come from the range of light and darks of that same color.
Complementary colors are colors that are opposite on the color wheel. These colors go well together or complement each other and often they are also a focal point of contrast in a design. So an example is blue and orange. If the blue is a greenish blue then the opposite orange color will be a reddish orange. If the blue has a touch of purple the orange opposite color will be a more yellow orange.
Analogous color schemes are made up of colors that are similar, so colors that you find next to each other on the color wheel. The colors in these groups generally have less contrast and so give a smoother transition or softer look.